In an environment of contemporary art, a price is placed on asking the tough questions at the danger of offending viewers along the way. These
In an environment of contemporary art, a price is placed on asking the tough questions at the danger of offending viewers along the way. These works, excerpted from Phaidon’s “The 21st-Century Art Book”, are some of the most controversial artworks of the 21st century. Ranging from flamboyant displays of wealth to what could be called animal and human abuse. These pieces go beyond the limit of artistic practice while also exposing the stressed relationship between ethics and beauty. Here is a list of the most controversial artworks of the 21st century
THE CHAPMAN FAMILY COLLECTION BY JAKE & DINOS CHAPMAN (2002): The Chapman family collection is described as a collection of rare ethnographic and reliquary fetish objects that had been amassed by the Chapman family over seventy years. This installation of thirty-four wooden carvings was first exhibited at White Cube in London. However, careful inspection revealed that some unexpected elements suggesting that the objects are not what they first appear to be. One sculpture is actually a portrait of Ronald McDonald, while another is shaped like a packet of McDonald’s fries. Several also reference works by Modernist artists such as Constantin Brancusi, signifying that the installation is a remark both on the misuse of the “tribal art” style by European artists and on how fetish objects have themselves become used over time.
MY MUMMY WAS BEAUTIFUL BY YOKO ONO (2004): This public artwork inspired by the childhood memories of Yoko Ono’s late husband, John Lennon, whose mother died during his adolescence. The artwork was intended to respect motherhood more broadly. Images of a woman’s breast and crotch were distributed throughout the UK city of Liverpool. While some viewers were offended at Ono’s banners, the artist defended her descriptions by explaining that, as children, our very first encounters with the world are with the female body.
SYLVIE BY WIM DELVOYE (2006): This artwork was considered controversial because Delvoye had tattoos inked onto the skin of a pig while the animal was still alive. The tattoo was a combination of cartoon characters, religious iconography, and a host of other designs on the back of this stuffed pig. He began tattooing dead pigs in the early 1990s, but in 1997 he started working on live animals, with the intention of challenging the art market by creating living works of art. His projects are intentionally provocative, testing the limits of art and ethics. The tattooed pigs can be owned by collectors while alive, but only physically owned after their deaths. Delvoye’s also has gothic sculptures and Cloaca machines that replicate the human digestive system.
FOR THE LOVE OF GOD BY DAMIEN HIRST (2007): This controversial piece of art is a human skull encrusted with 8,601 flawless pavé-set diamonds. This artwork cost £14 million to create and weighs 1,106.18 carats. It is named after the expression regularly uttered by Hirst’s mother on hearing his early ideas for artworks. This artwork was first exhibited at the White Cube gallery in London in 2007, amid heavy security, and attracted thousands of visitors. Hirst was said to have bought the skull that is said to belong to an eighteenth-century man of European/Mediterranean ancestry from a London taxidermist. Its teeth are real and belong to the skull. The piece acts as a memento mori, a reminder of the certainty of death. Hirst drew inspiration from Aztec representations of skulls as well as Mexican rituals of honouring the dead.
THE HUGO BOSS PRIZE BY HANS-PETER FELDMANN (2010): This artwork was the $100,000 honorarium paid to Feldman to exhibit at the Guggenheim Museum in New York. Feldman pinned it to the walls of the gallery in neat rows of single United States dollar bills. Aside from the instantly recognizable smell, the viewer’s attention was drawn to the differences between the serially produced paper money. Some were folded, creased or defaced, and all, of course, were uniquely numbered. When the exhibition was over, the artist removed the banknotes and put them back into normal circulation.
Drawing can be described as one of the oldest and most popular channels of expression. Modern drawing refers to a form of expression that contains a lot of modern ideas and expressions. It involves technological and technical sketches that have taken a means different from the traditional method. The amount of color and effects used in modern drawings varies from one sketching/drawing theme to another. There is need for a keen sense of observation, sheer level of composition, patience and exploration of different techniques aimed at producing clear results. This piece is aimed at showcasing the modern drawing methods used by top artist.
USE A BACKGROUND OR GROUND: A ground refers to a cover to a surface that will be painted on. A ground also acts as mid-tone. Using a ground will increase painting or drawing speed.
USE PATTERNED SURFACES: Just like the ground, patterned surfaces can cover area of an artwork faster. This technique should be used with great care. It is essential to use materials which supports or enhance the artwork.
WORK ON MULTIPLE PIECES AT THE SAME TIME: Working in series and completing different pieces of artwork at the same time. it is a very helpful strategy that will speed up the rate of work. One of the major advantages of this is that it save time and similar process can be repeated on subsequent works.
PAINT IN THE RIGHT ORDER: Painting things in an wrong or illogical order tends to make the work tedious and complicated. The background should come first followed by the middle ground and ending with the fore ground. Painting in the correct order will result in piece of work that has layers which will add to the richness and luster of the work.
USE TAPE TO CREATE STRAIGHT EDGES: Tapes will produce straight edges and make your work sharper cleaner and more professional.
LEAVE ARTWORK PURPOSEFULLY INCOMPLETE: There are many occasion when it will be best not to complete the artwork. This is useful when conducting visual research, exploring ideas and experimenting with media. It is also useful in drawing attention to focal points and direct attention within the artwork.
PICK OUT CERTAIN PARTS OF A SCENE: Omitting part of a scene to draw has a strong impact on the final work and must be used with care to ensure that the resulting image supports the idea. This method shows strong observational drawing skills as well as saves time.
SELECTIVELY FLATTEN TONE: This method is used to remove smooth blending gradations from dark to light. This method should be use occasionally.
FOCUS ON LINE: This method requires that you draw using only line. It gives the benefit of providing a welcome relief. Blind drawings, contour drawings, cross contour drawing and other hatched drawings are examples of line drawing. This method will only consume your time when you are applying the tone.
USE PHOTOGRAPH: It is essential that certain amount of painting and drawing must be done within a painting and fine art portfolio. Photography can provide a wonderful mechanism for carrying out art work at a faster pace. Photographs can also be used as a tool to develop composition and as painting ground.
USE THE RIGHT DRAWING TOOLS: Selection of the right drawing tool will help make your artwork easy. Use the tools that matches your idea and drawing and painting will be a lot more easy.
Becoming a successful commercial artist is one of the hardest things in the world. However, being an artist is all about constantly being creative and come up with ideas. Success, on the other hand, has different definitions to different people. Some prefer the financial aspect, while others are satisfied with the comfort, support or eventual fame it offers. No matter what your definition of success is, it doesn’t come from just being creative and hardworking but exposing oneself to his environment. By this, I mean having an endless stream of new customers. Here some tips from professionals on how to become a successful commercial artist.
ENVISION SUCCESS: The first and foremost step to becoming a successful artist is by having a vision and every piece that is exhibited must typify that vision. It is essential to exhibit a cohesive, logical and consistent selection of artwork as this will create an identity for you. Randomness, lack of direction and inconsistency in the choice of arts signifies that one is heading out of the door soon.
HAVE AN IDENTITY: It is essentials that you have your own identity and not dwell in the identity of another. Using the identity of another will only make the other person better and make you look like a crazy fan. Believe in what you think and stick with it
BE CONSISTENT: No matter how challenging and confrontational your art is, you cannot stop half way or be shy about your objectives. Put your art out there and be prepared to handle the outcome. Defending your art successfully is essential for your reputation a critical part of your art game.
BE SPECIALIZED: It is pertinent that you restrict your artworks to a certain niche, and that you claim that niche for yourself. Become an expert in your field of specialization and people will seek for your ideas, opinion and work. Do not be the jack of all trade master of none or try to know everything about something. Art collectors appreciate knowledgeable and educated informed artist who knows their subjects and clearly convey the significance of their area of specialization.
BUILD YOUR CUSTOMER BASE: To become successful requires that you stay in business. One way to do this is to build a realistic customer base and a devoted network of repeat buyers. It is also essential to ensure that these customers are kept and new ones are added to the existing base. You also do not have to ignore the rest of the public. The longer your customer collect the more sophisticated and elevated their knowledge and taste become. This will increase the level of respect they have for you. You also need to link up yourself with one or more major art dealer.
KNOW YOUR COMPETITORS: Identifying an area of specialization will give you a better chance to know your competitors. It will help you identify who the best artists in your field are, who’s up and coming and the spotting trends ahead of the competition. This will give you a step ahead of other allows you make the market yourself. To become a successful artist you have to set the pace and watch others follow you. Word of your astuteness will spread and collectors and dealers will look to you for guidance and the rest is history.
BE PROFESSIONAL: it is essential that you maintain a professional work attitude at all times whether it’s through email or phone call. Art collectors, dealers and even clients want to know that they are dealing with someone who knows what he/she is doing. Keep in mind that the best way to expand your customer base is through word of mouth. If your customers enjoy working with you, they might recommend you to a friend or colleague.